CNC Machine – Characteristics And Application Of CNC Machine Tool

CNC Machine Tool

CNC metal cutting tools have been more and more used in modern manufacturing industry, and give play to the incomparable advantages of ordinary machine tools. In this guide, we discuss the basics, characteristics and applications of CNC machine.

Characteristics Of CNC Machine

  1. The transmission chain is short. Compared with ordinary machine tools, the spindle drive is no longer a motor belt gear pair mechanism, but a transverse and longitudinal feed, which is driven by two servo motors respectively. The traditional components such as change gears and clutches are no longer used, and the transmission chain is greatly shortened.
  2. High rigidity. In order to match the high precision of the numerical control system, the rigidity of the numerical control machine tool is high, so as to adapt to the requirements of high precision processing.
  3. Light drag, tool carrier (table) movement using ball screw pair, small friction, easy to move. The pressure angle of the special bearing at both ends of the lead screw is larger than that of the ordinary bearing, so it can be selected and matched when leaving the factory. The lubrication part of the CNC machine tool adopts the oil mist automatic lubrication, which makes the CNC machine tool move easily.

CNC Machining Process

  1. High degree of automation, can reduce the manual labor intensity of the operator. The CNC machining process is automatically completed according to the input program. The operator only needs to start the tool setting, loading and unloading the workpiece, and changing the tool. In the CNC machining process, the main task is to observe and supervise the operation of the machine tool.
  2. High precision and stable quality of CNC machining parts. The positioning accuracy and repeated positioning accuracy of CNC machine tools are very high, so it is easy to ensure the consistency of the size of a batch of parts. As long as the process CNC design and program are correct and reasonable, combined with careful operation, it can ensure that the parts can obtain higher processing accuracy, and it is also convenient for the quality control of the processing process.
  3. High production efficiency. CNC machine tool processing is able to process multiple processing surfaces in clamping again. Generally, it only detects the first piece, so it can save many intermediate processes of ordinary machine tool processing, such as marking, size detection, etc., which reduces the auxiliary time. Moreover, due to the stable quality of parts processed by CNC machining service, it brings convenience for subsequent processes, and its comprehensive efficiency is significantly improved.
  4. Convenient for new product development and modification. The parts with complex shape and high precision can be processed by programming. When the product is modified and the design is changed, as long as the program is changed, there is no need to redesign the tooling. Therefore, CNC machining can greatly shorten the product development cycle, and provide a shortcut for the development, improvement and modification of new products.
  5. It can develop to a more advanced manufacturing system. Numerical control machine tool and its processing technology are the basis of computer aided manufacturing.
  6. Large initial investment. This is due to the high cost of CNC machine tools, long preparation period for the first processing and high maintenance cost.
  7. High maintenance requirements. Numerical control machine tool is a typical product of mechatronics, which is technology intensive. It needs maintenance personnel to understand not only machinery, but also microelectronics maintenance knowledge, and better maintenance equipment.

Applications Of CNC Machine

  1. It is most suitable for many kinds of small and medium batch parts

With the gradual decline of the manufacturing cost of CNC machine tools, the situation of processing large quantities of parts has also appeared. When processing small batch and single piece production, if it can shorten the debugging time of program and the preparation time of tooling, it can also be selected.

  1. High precision parts

Because of good rigidity, high manufacturing accuracy, accurate tool setting and convenient size compensation, CNC machine tools can process parts with high dimensional accuracy requirements.

Parts with complex contour and shape

Any plane curve can be approximated by straight line or arc. CNC machine has the function of arc interpolation, which can process all kinds of complex contour parts.


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